What are the uses of microorganisms in food industry?
Microorganisms in food production Nature uses microorganisms to carry out fermentation processes, and for thousands of years mankind has used yeasts, moulds and bacteria to make food products such as bread, beer, wine, vinegar, yoghurt and cheese, as well as fermented fish, meat and vegetables.
What are the most important applications of biotechnology in food processing?
The applications and uses of biotechnology in food processing is immense and this includes the following applications such as – its utilization in fermentation of substances and also to enhance pro- perties of the material goods such as the taste, fragrance, shelf-life, texture, quality and nutritional value of that …
What is a chromosome simple definition?
Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.
What is the main function of a chromosome?
DNA present on the chromosome not only carries most of the genetic information but also controls the hereditary transfer. Chromosomes are essential for the process of cell division, replication, division, and creation of daughter cells.
Which are the two main parts that make up a chromosome?
DNA is coiled around proteins called histones, which provide the structural support. Chromosomes help ensure that DNA is replicated and distributed appropriately during cell division. Each chromosome has a centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections – the p (short) arm and the q (long) arm.
What is the difference between DNA and chromosome?
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the cell’s genetic material, contained in chromosomes within the cell nucleus and mitochondria. A chromosome contains many genes. A gene is a segment of DNA that provides the code to construct a protein. The DNA molecule is a long, coiled double helix that resembles a spiral staircase.
How many DNA is in a chromosome?
The illustration below shows the 46 chromosomes that contain the human genome. There are 22 homologous pairs and two sex chromosomes (the X and Y chromosomes). One chromosome in each pair is inherited from one’s mother and one from one’s father. Each chromosome is a single molecule of DNA.
What is the relationship between DNA and a chromosome?
Human cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes containing DNA. The chromosomes serve as the structure that holds the DNA. The DNA acts as a complete set of instructions that tells our bodies how to develop.
What is the first chromosome called?
Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome. Humans have two copies of chromosome 1, as they do with all of the autosomes, which are the non-sex chromosomes.
What is chromosome with diagram?
The chromosome is the condensed and compactly arranged structure of the DNA with the help of histone proteins H1, H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. This is the structure which can be visible during the metaphase of cell division. This condensed packing allows the long DNA in the eukaryotes to be packed in the nucleus of the cell.
What are the names of the 23 chromosomes?
Twenty-two of these pairs, called autosomes, look the same in both males and females. The 23rd pair, the sex chromosomes, differ between males and females. Females have two copies of the X chromosome, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The 22 autosomes are numbered by size.
What are the two types of chromosomes in the human body?
Chromosomes in humans can be divided into two types: autosomes (body chromosome(s)) and allosome (sex chromosome(s)). Certain genetic traits are linked to a person’s sex and are passed on through the sex chromosomes. The autosomes contain the rest of the genetic hereditary information.
What are the 4 types of chromosomes?
There are four main types of chromosomes: metacentric, submetacentric, acrocentric, and telocentric. Chromosomes are found within the nucleus of most living cells and consist of DNA that is tightly wound into thread-like structures.
How is a chromosome formed?
In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. DNA and histone proteins are packaged into structures called chromosomes.